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Droppings in Salmonellosis

Faeces in salmonellosis showing pathological changes: The few faecal constituents lie in a mucoid/aqueous fluid with white flocculent components.

Ill pigeon

Young pigeon suffering from salmonellosis: ruffled plumage, droppings greenish, watery.

Diseases of the digestive tract


Salmonellosis (Paratyphus)

Salmonellosis has one of the highest mortality rates of any infectious bacterial disease of pigeons.

Pathogen:
Salmonella typhimurium var. copenhagen, designated as the "pigeon type" salmonella strain.
Given the right conditions, the bacterium can remain infective in the environment for 1 year or more.

Salmonellae are spread by:

Clinical signs:
Acute form (mainly affects young pigeons):

Enteritis with pulpy, mucoid, greenish droppings; once organs (liver, kidneys, spleen) have become infected, there is growth retardation, emaciation and (in isolated cases) death. Embryos infected with salmonellae frequently die in ovo or during the first few days of life.

Chronic form (mainly affects adult pigeons):

Inflammation causes a thickening of the joints, especially the elbow joint, wing or leg lameness, disorders of balance and torsion of the neck. Recognition of the disease: Bacteriological examination of faecal and/or organ samples. An antibiogram is performed to determine which medication is suitable for treatment purposes.

Similar conditions:
Paramyxovirus infection, Ornithosis, Coccidiosis, worm infestation, organ form of Trichomoniasis.

Treatment:
Upon appearance of the symptoms described, treatment with chloramphenicol-N should be started immediately. In some cases it is necessary to change the treatment (e.g. to doxycyclin-t or ampicillin-t) when the results of the bacteriological examination and antibiogram become available.

Do not give pigeons any feeds containing calcium (e.g. grit) during treatment with doxycyclin-t, since calcium binds doxycycline and thus reduces its efficacy.

No free flight for affected pigeons.

Do not provide bath water.

Treat the entire flock rather than individual birds.

Cull severely affected pigeons before beginning the treatment, since it is unlikely that they can be cured.

To check the outcome of the treatment, carry out bacteriological examinations on faecal samples. These should take place at least 14 days after termination of treatment, and then repeated twice at 3-week intervals.

Salmonellosis - Treatment plan for application of chloramphenicol-N

Duration of treatment Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Breeder’s check list                                                        
notwendig chloramphenicol-N drinking water or feed notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig     notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig                                
hilfreich livimun® drinking water or feed hilfreich hilfreich hilfreich hilfreich       hilfreich hilfreich       hilfreich hilfreich                            
hilfreich multivitamin EB12 drinking water             hilfreich                           hilfreich             hilfreich
notwendig liviferm drinking water                         notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig                      
notwendig desinfectans disinfection notwendig       notwendig             notwendig                                

notwendig necessary treatment
hilfreich optional back-up treatment

Salmonellosis - Table of requirements for the flock

Product and
duration of treatment
Dosage Total requirements for 100 pigeons
(entire treatment period)
notwendig chloramphenicol-N
10 days
1 sachet per litre sachets
packages
50
5
hilfreich livimun®
8 days
20 ml per 2 litres
or
the daily feed ration
of 40 pigeons
ml

bottles
400

2
hilfreich multivitamin EB12
3 days
½ sachet per litre
or
2 caps. per pigeon
and day
sachets
packages
capsules
packages
7 ½
1
600
6
notwendig liviferm
5 days
½ sachet per litre
or
1 caps. per pigeon
and day
sachets
packages
capsules
packages
12 ½
2
500
5
chevita GmbH chevita - Requirement calculation: Treatment with chloramphenicol-N
How many pigeons are to be treated?

Salmonellosis - Treatment plan for application of doxycyclin-t

Duration of treatment Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Breeder’s check list                                                        
notwendig doxycyclin-t drinking water
notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig                            
hilfreich livimun® drinking water or feed hilfreich hilfreich hilfreich hilfreich       hilfreich hilfreich       hilfreich hilfreich                            
hilfreich multivitamin EB12 drinking water             hilfreich                           hilfreich             hilfreich
notwendig liviferm drinking water                             notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig                  
notwendig desinfectans disinfection notwendig       notwendig                 notwendig                            

notwendig necessary treatment
hilfreich optional back-up treatment

Salmonellosis - Table of requirements for the flock

Product and
duration of treatment
Dosage Total requirements for 100 pigeons
(entire treatment period)
notwendig doxycyclin-t
Salmonellosis: 14 days
1 sachet per 2 litres
or
1 caps. per pigeon
and day
sachets
packages
capsules
packages
35
3
1,400
14
hilfreich livimun®
8 days
20 ml per 2 litres
or
the daily feed ration
of 40 pigeons
ml

bottles
400

2
hilfreich multivitamin EB12
3 days
½ sachet per litre
or
2 caps. per pigeon
and day
sachets
packages
capsules
packages
7 ½
1
600
6
notwendig liviferm
5 days
½ sachet per litre
or
1 caps. per pigeon
and day
sachets
packages
capsules
packages
12 ½
2
500
5
chevita GmbH chevita - Requirement calculation: Treatment with doxycyclin-t
How many pigeons are to be treated?

Salmonellosis - Treatment plan for the application of ampicillin-t

Salmonellosis and general bacterial infections

Duration of treatment Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Breeder’s check list                                                        
notwendig ampicillin-t drinking water or feed notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig     notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig                                
hilfreich livimun® drinking water or feed hilfreich hilfreich hilfreich hilfreich       hilfreich hilfreich       hilfreich hilfreich                            
hilfreich multivitamin EB12 drinking water             hilfreich                           hilfreich             hilfreich
notwendig liviferm drinking water                         notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig notwendig                      
notwendig desinfectans disinfection notwendig       notwendig             notwendig                                

notwendig necessary treatment
hilfreich optional back-up treatment

Salmonellosis and general bacterial infections - Table of requirements for the flock

Product and
duration of treatment
Dosage Total requirements for 100 pigeons
(entire treatment period)
notwendig ampicillin-t
Salmonellosis: 10 days
2 sachet per litre
or
2 caps. per pigeon
and day
sachets
packages
capsules
packages
100
9
2,000
20
General bacterial
infections: 5 days
1 sachet per litre
or
1 caps. per pigeon
and day
sachets
packages
capsules
packages
25
3
500
5
hilfreich livimun®
8 days
20 ml per 2 litres
or
the daily feed ration
of 40 pigeons
ml

bottles
400

2
hilfreich multivitamin EB12
3 days
½ sachet per litre
or
2 caps. per pigeon
and day
sachets
packages
capsules
packages
7 ½
1
600
6
notwendig liviferm
5 days
½ sachet per litre
or
1 caps. per pigeon
and day
sachets
packages
capsules
packages
12 ½
2
500
5
chevita GmbH chevita - Requirement calculation: Treatment with ampicillin-t
How many pigeons are to be treated?

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